Dogs' energy and nutritional needs.

This section does not need to be deep investigated, but might be nice to get a little more detail knowledge in canine nutrition. The section is generally for dogs and not just specifically for collie dogs. Nutrients are divided into energizing and not energizing. The energizing found in proteins, carbohydrates and fats, where water, minerals and vitamins are not energizing.

Energy demand can be expressed as:

  •  Energy requirement at rest - RER (Resting Energy Requirement) (kcal) as (30 x body weight in kg) + 70
  •  Energy Needs - DER (Daily Energy Requirement) (kcal) as RER x factor which vary depending on needs

An adult dog's average DER = 1.6 x RER, ie energy needs for normal adult dog is 1.6 times the energy requirement at rest.

  •  Puppies less than 4 months, DER = 3.0 x RER.
  •  Puppy 4-9 months, DER = 2.5 x RER.
  •  Puppy 10-12 months DER = 2.0 x RER.

Have an adult dog tend to be overweight or elderly dogs DER = 1.4 x RER.

Example: An adult collie female of 52 cm and 20 kg with normal energy needs would be calculated as ((30 x 20) + 70) * 1.6 = 1072 kcal per day. Read the manufactors declaration to find det proper needs. If the label writes 350 kcal/100g, it would be a need of 306 g per day. If it's an active female the DER could be higher than 1.6 and ration must be adjusted. Most manufactors writes a feeding guidline on there products, which can be followed and calculation unnecessary.
 
The figures can be used as guidelines in feeding and quantity, but BMI weight table can also be used for most collies too. Some dog food manufacturers may tend to indicate little heavy crops, but will usually be individual and depending on the dog's activities. With this knowledge in mind, you have all possibilities to keep your collie in a good condition and balanced.
 
Nutrition distribution can be seen as a pyramid of the substances the dog needs and overall volume distribution.

Dog Nutrition Pyramid
 

Proteins.

 
Proteins are divided into animal and vegetable proteins, composed of amino acids. Proteins are key building blocks of tissues and organs. Protein deficiency is of particular weight loss, poor growth, loss of muscle mass, dry coat, edema of body tissues, immune system, anemia. Protein profit is primarily an expensive energy source by example getting steaks every day, but not saved a profit in the body, but the amino moiety is converted to urea and excreted through the kidneys clean and acid moiety is converted to glucose and stored. This can accelerates kidney disease. Protein quality is measured as the biological value (BV) and expresses how well amino acids match the dog's needs and protein digestibility. Be aware of animal proteins have higher BV value than vegetable.
 
Examples of percent BV values ​​on different products.

  •  Eggs approx. 95%
  •  Chicken, lamb or fish approx. 90 - 95%
  •  Meal with purchase approx. 75 - 80%

Fat / Oil.

Fat has 4 main functions

  •  Power supply
  •  Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K
  •  Improve taste
  •  sources of essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6

Omega-6 - linoleic acid contained in poultry, lard, soy, corn, sunflower and evening primrose. Omega-6 are important for skin health and coat quality and fertility.
 
Omega-3 - alpha-linolenic acid which is contained in flaxseed and rapeseed oil, EPA and DHA contained in the fish oil, which has an anti-inflammatory role and improves learning ability.
 
We advise our puppy buyers give puppies salmon oil or similar product containing said components. There are similar products for horses, which sometimes can be bought at a lower price. Cod liver oil has a relatively high content of Vitamin A, so that the dosage must be relative, since the vitamin A is fat soluble when the dosage is unfortunate. (Look at vitamin section). Cod liver oil is also usually a more expensive product than salmon oil.
 
Fatty acid deficiencies can cause dry hair, skin, delayed wound healing, impaired immune system, and vitamin deficiency. As a natural consequence of a weakened immune system can cause fatal flaws and unintended diseases.

Carbohydrates.

 
Carbohydrates can be divided into the simple carbohydrates, starch and fiber.

  •  Simple carbohydrates are (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose) - Fruit and berry-bearing plants.
  •  Starch is corn, rice, wheat, barley and potatoes
  •  Fibre is beet pulp

Simple carbohydrates and starch gives energy, produce heat degradation, building blocks for amino acids, lactose and c-vitamins, and storage of energy (glycogen and fat).
 
Fibre promotes digestion and prevent constipation and diarrhea.
 
Central nervous system needs glucose. Lack of carbohydrates increases the need for fat and protein metabolism and increases drowsiness.

Minerals.

  •  Macro minerals are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfur.
  •  Micro minerals are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, cobalt, molybdenum, fluorine, boron and chromium.

Macro Minerals maintains acid balance, fluid balance, nerve impulses, muscle contractions and bone structure.
 
These building blocks are extremely important for your puppy's weight, which is why manufacturers of quality feed has researched the proper balance for dogs proper growth. For a puppy it is extremely important that the calcium / phosphorus ratio is correct, then such bone growth is best.
 
Microminerals maintain hormones, vitamins and enzymes. Vitamins divided into

  •  Fat-soluble A, D, E and K, where overdose stored in the liver and adipose tissue.
  •  Water-soluble B (miscellaneous), PP (nicotinic acid), H (biotin) and C (ascorbic acid), where the dose is excreted with urine.

Assessment of feed.

 
It is difficult to assess from the content label the product and it is impossible to assess the biological value protein source. The value is determined by feeding trials, the amount of faeces, general condition, coat and condition. It is strongly recommended that you stay within the recognized quality products, especially when the dog is a puppy to ensure proper growth.

Change of food product.

 
If you wish to switch to another manufacturer of dog food, the quality will be comparable to the quality of recognized quality manufacturers include Royal Canin, Eukanuba, Hills, other well-known manufacturers or other products veterinarian can recommend. Do not buy cheap products, but secure your puppy's proper growth.
 
Any feed changes should be gradual as shown.

  •  Day 1 and 2 - 75% old food and 25% new food.
  •  Day 3 and 4 - 50% old food and 50% new food.
  •  Day 5 and 6 - 25% old food and 75% new food.

Liquid. Ensure that the dog ALWAYS have access to fresh water. An adult dog will usually drink approx. 50 ml. per. kg. body weight per. day. Avoid dog drink dirty water from puddles or from strong bacteria-containing sources, which can lead to undesirable diseases.